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Sunday, December 11, 2011

PICA - Eating disorder

Pica is a pattern of eating non-food materials (such as dirt or paper).



Causes

Pica is seen more in young children than adults. Between 10 and 32% of children ages 1 - 6 have these behaviors. Pica can occur  due to a lack of certain nutrients, such as iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency, may trigger the unusual cravings. Pica may also occur in adults who crave a certain texture in their mouth.


Symptoms   :  Children and adults with pica may eat:

•Clay

•Dirt

•Hairballs

•Ice

•Paint

•Sand

This pattern of eating should last at least 1 month to fit the diagnosis of pica.

Tests

There is no single test that confirms pica. However, because pica can occur in people who have lower than normal nutrient levels and poor nutrition (malnutrition), the health care provider should test blood levels of iron and zinc.

Blood tests can also be done to test for anemia. Lead levels should always be checked in children who may have eaten paint or objects covered in lead-paint dust to screen for lead poisoning.
The health care provider should test for infection if the person has been eating contaminated soil or animal waste.

Treatment

Treatment should first address any missing nutrients or other medical problems, such as lead exposure.

Treatment involves behavioral, environmental, and family educational approaches. Other successful treatments include associating the pica behavior with bad consequences or punishment (mild aversion therapy) followed by positive reinforcement for eating the right foods.

Medications may help reduce the abnormal eating behavior, if pica occurs as part of a developmental disorder such as mental retardation.

Prognosis

Treatment success varies. In many cases, the disorder lasts several months, then disappears on its own. In some cases, it may continue into the teen years or adulthood, especially when it occurs with developmental disorders.

Possible Complications

•Bezoar (a mass of undigestible material trapped inside the body, usually in the stomach)

•Infection

•Intestinal obstruction

•Lead poisoning

•Malnutrition

When to Contact a Medical Professional

If you notice that a child (or adult) often eats non-food materials.

Prevention

There is no specific prevention. Getting enough nutrition may help.

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